What Is Subcutaneous Tissue?


The subcutaneous layer protects deep muscle structures and regulates temperature. It also provides an energy reserve. It contains fat that acts like insulation and absorbs shock. It has blood vessels that can expand to cool the body. It can be affected by inflammation and infection. People can have bumps called abscesses that contain pus.


Subcutaneous fat

Subcutaneous fat is a layer of connective tissue beneath the skin that houses adipose cells. It protects deep muscles, bones, and organs from physical damage by absorbing shock and regulating body temperature. It is thickest in the buttocks, palms, and soles of feet. It also plays a role in regulating blood pressure.

The subcutaneous tissue contains a network of blood vessels and nerves that carry nutrients, hormones, and stem cells between the skin and muscle layers. These cells help to prevent wrinkles and promote hair growth.

It is normal to have some excess fat, and the size of adipose cells can be affected by diet and exercise habits. However, certain medical conditions can lead to the development of fatty tissue that is not desirable. For example, diabetes patients who take medication such as thiazolidinediones may experience an increase in fatty tissue due to increased insulin resistance.

Fat in the subcutaneous layer is essential to many body functions, but having too much can cause health issues. To lose excess fat, people should exercise regularly and follow a healthy diet. Cardiovascular exercises such as running and walking can burn calories while lifting weights can build lean muscle. A doctor can help determine the ideal amount of fat for a person’s unique body and can recommend an appropriate exercise routine to achieve it.

Subcutaneous injections

Subcutaneous injections are administered into the fatty tissue layer below the skin and above muscle tissue. This route of administration is preferred for drugs that are less soluble or that require a slow, sustained rate of absorption. Insulin and heparin are common examples of medications that are administered by this method.

To prepare for giving a subcutaneous injection, clean and dry the hands with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer or soap. Then, 대전피부과 pinch the skin where the injection will be given. It is important to avoid injecting in the same place every time because it can cause scar tissue, which could inhibit the medication’s effectiveness. It may be helpful to use a notebook or calendar to keep track of where you are injecting each time.

You can also try to distract yourself or your patient with a movie, TV show, video game, or conversation. If the needle is painful, it can be helpful to put a numbing cream on the area a few minutes before the injection. In addition, it can be helpful to encourage patients and children to breathe deeply before the injection or to give them a pacifier.

Remove the safety device from the needle and poke it into the pinched skin at a 90- to 45-degree angle. Slowly push the plunger of the syringe to inject the medication into the fatty tissue beneath the skin. When you are finished, pull the syringe out of the skin and dispose of it in a puncture-resistant disposal container.


Soft tissue tumors are characterized by growth of abnormal masses in the body that form when cells grow and divide more than normal or do not die when they should. They may be benign or malignant (cancerous). Also called neoplasms.

Benign tumors, such as a lipoma or a hemangioma, are generally painless and move around freely on the surface of the skin, although some can cause discoloration and discomfort when they press against nerves or blood vessels. A malignant tumor can be quite invasive, spreading microscopically along fascial planes and into nearby tissues and organs. This can cause pain and other symptoms, such as swelling and discoloration of surrounding skin.

Most soft tissue tumors – whether benign or malignant – do not give the patient any warning signs until they reach an uncomfortable size. They often emerge as a lump or bump in the skin, and they can grow slowly or rapidly. Depending on their location and etiology, they can displace and compress bones, blood vessels, nerves or other structures and alter the function of those structures.

Soft connective tissue sarcomas, including fibrosarcomas, hemangiopericytomas and liposarcomas, usually grow under the skin in the arms or legs, where there is less room for them to be mistaken for other structures. Because of this, these tumors can be resected more easily than those that are deep-seated.


Panniculitis involves inflammation of the subcutaneous fat layer and results in painful bumps underneath the skin. It is usually bacterial but can be due to viral, parasitic, or fungal infections. It can occur in any part of the body, but is most often seen on the legs and arms. It can also appear on the groin, buttocks, face, or trunk. This condition is characterized by the sudden appearance of tender, red, inflammatory skin lumps called nodules or plaques. Symptoms include fever, joint and muscle pain, and feeling generally ill.

The diagnosis is usually made by clinical appearance of the skin nodules, but can be confirmed by biopsy. Histopathology reveals a mixed septal and lobular neutrophil-dominated infiltrate of the fat lobule with varying degrees of vascular involvement and necrosis. The granulomas are composed of collections of neutrophils surrounded by epithelioid histiocytes.

Inflammatory panniculitis can be associated with certain medications, such as etanercept (Enbrel), methotrexate, rifampicin, dapsone, and thalidomide. Vemurafenib and dabrafenib, two recently approved BRAF inhibitors used to treat unresectable or metastatic melanoma with the V600E mutation, have also been linked to panniculitis in some patients.